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Pengertian Factual Report Text : Fungsi, Generic Structure, Language Feature dan Contoh Soalnya


A. Pengertian Factual Report Text

Merupakan teks dalam Bahasa Inggris yang mendeskripsikan sesuatu berdasarkan kaidah-kaidah  ilmiah seperti fakta, data, dan teori-teori  pendukungnya baik berbentuk lisan dan tulisan serta bertujuan untuk menyajikan informasi secara transparan, benar, akurat dan ilmiah.

Factual report merupakan salah satu jenis teks yang menjelaskan sesuatu berdasarkan fakta, realitas, atau kenyataan atau sebuah teks yang terdiri dari fakta-fakta. Ia bukan jenis teks yang terdiri dari teori-teori tertentu atau pedapat pribadi sehingga factual report bersifat objektif.

Apabila seseorang menulis teks faktual berbentuk laporan maka berarti orang tersebut telah menulis teks faktual yang merupakan sebuah proses komunikasi atau pemberian ide, gagasan, dan pikiran dengan bahasa yang dapat dipahami oleh orang lain dalam bentuk atau wujud bahasa tulis yang berdasarkan fakta- fakta.

Pada hakikatnya menulis faktual berarti menulis ide/karya yang berbasis pendekatan proses dan menulis berbasis pendekatan genre karena mencakup kegiatan pembelajaran dalam bentuk praktik seperti kegiatan prapenulisan, penulisan berbagai bentuk faktual, pasca penulisan, dan menilai atau kualitas tulisan.

Pengertian lain dari teks faktual adalah sebuah teks yang menceritakan suatu kejadian yang bersifat nyata, benar-benar terjadi tetapi tidak terikat dengan waktu. Dengan kata lain, suatu kejadian yang faktual bisa terjadi di masa lalu ataupun masa sekarang. Factual report adalah sebuah teks yang mendeskripsikan sesuatu berdasarkan fakta atau terdiri dari facta fakta,bukan sebuah teks yang terdiri dari teori teori atau pendapat pribadi.

B. Social Function of Factual Report Text

Fungsi dari Factual Report adalah untuk mempresentasikan tentang sesuatu, Factual report biasanya mendeskripsikan sesuatu secara menyeluruh, yang dideskripsikan bisa berupa alam atau buatan manusia.  Berikut ini fungsi factual report dalam bahasa Inggris:

1. Menjelaskan Fakta Tentang Sesuatu

Fungsi utama dari factual report adalah untuk menjelaskan fakta tentang suatu hal. Biasanya ia menjelaskan secara menyeluruh. Hal-hal yang dapat dijelaskan dengan factual report adalah hal yang berasal dari alam atau buatan manusia. berikut ini contoh teksnya:

Cat is an animal that include in one of felidae family, just like Tiger and lion. Cat is also a mammal animal so it gave birth to its Children and feeding them Milk. It can live until more than 12 years. There are many kinds of cat that have been known in this World. the cat that we often meet is domestic cat but the most favorite kinds are persian cat and angora cat because their beautiful fur.

2. Pendukung dalam Karya Ilmiah

Selain fungsi tersebut, factual report juga dapat digunakan sebagai pendukung di dalam karya ilmiah. Hal ini dikarenakan di dalam karya ilmiah diperlukan banyak factual report untuk mendukung hipotesis atau dugaan ilmiah kita. Berikut ini contoh factual report sebagai pendukung dalam karya ilmiah:

Eleutherine palmifolia L. Merr having antioxidant activity, its because of contain flavonoid fenolat and tanin. These compounds have effect in preventif of free radial which cause prematur aging. Research on etanol extract of E palmifolia L. Merr wich formulated into antioxidant Cream have been done by applying variation on TEA emulgator and stearic acid.

C. Generic Structure of Factual Report

1. General Clasification (Klasifikasi umum) : Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya.  menyatakan klasifikasi aspek umum hal: hewan, tempat umum, tanaman, dll yang akan dibahas secara umum.

2. Description (keterangan) : tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors; Pada bagian ini biasanya memberikan gambaran fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi; baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya, ataupun tingkah lakunya. Intinya adalah penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang disajikan dengan ilmiah. Bagian ini menggambarkan hal yang akan dibahas secara rinci: bagian per bagian, adat-istiadat atau perbuatan untuk makhluk hidup dan penggunaan bahan.

D. Language Feature of Factual Report

Sama halnya dengan report text, maka ciri-ciri dari Factual Report Text adalah sebagai berikut:

1. Berisi fakta-fakta ilmiah tersebutlah, maka report text didominasi oleh simple present tense.

2. Judulnya akan terlihat umum

3. Disertai gambar, data statistik, diagram atau peta untuk meyakinkan bahwa hasil penelitiannya dilakukan secara ilmiah.

4. Menggunakan pola kalimat Simple Present Tense

5. Menggunakan kata benda umum (general nouns)

6. Menggunakan kata kerja yang saling berhubungan (relating verbs)

7. Terdiri dari sebuah objek ditambah objek tentang alam lainnya.

8. Menjelaskan kelompok atau aspek umum, bukan individu secara khusus.

9. Menggunakan conditional logical conjunction; when, so, futhermore, in addition, dan lain sebagainya.

E. Contoh Soal Factual Report

I. Objective Test

Text 1

                                                                          Jellyfish

Jellyfish are not really fish. they are invertebrate animals. this means that unlike fish or people, they have no backbones.in fact, they have no bones at all.

Jellyfish have stomach and mouths, but no heads. they have nervous systems for sensing the world around them, but no brains. they are made almost entirely of water, which is why you can look through them.

Some jellyfish can glow in darkness by making their own light. The light is made by a chemical reaction inside the jellyfish . Scientists believe jellyfish glow for several reasons. for example, they may glow to scare away predator or to attract animals they like to eat.

Most jellyfish live in salt water, apart from a few types that live in fresh water. jellyfish are found in oceans and seas all over the world. They live in warm, tropical seas and in icy waters near north and south poles.

1. What is the purpose of the text?

A. To tell how sea jellyfish live.
B. To describe particular jellyfish
C. To convince that jellyfish are not fish
D. To compare between jellyfish and fish
E.  To inform general description of jellyfish

2. What information can you get from paragraph 3 and 4?

A. Most of Jellyfish live in  salt water.
B. Some Jellyfish glow for some reasons.
C. Jellyfish can live in oceans all over the world.
D. Jellyfish produce their own light that’s made by chemical reaction.
E. Jellyfish can live in seas all over the world  and make their own light.

3.  “They may glow to scare away predator or to attract animals they like to eat...”   (paragraph 3)

The underlined word is closest in meaning to....

A. Attack
B. Arrest
C. Catch
D. Force
E. Pull

Text 2

                                                                                   Whales

Whales are sea-living mammals. They therefore breathe air but cannot survive or land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30 meter length, is the largest animal which lives on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important difference in its external structure; its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its breadth, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of flat (blubber). This is up to 30 meter in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.

4. What is the text about?
A. sea-living mammals
B. the description of mammals
C. the difference between whales and fish
D. whales
E. how whales survive themselves

5. The length of a whale is……..

A. is generally more than 30 meter
B. may be more than 30 meter
C. is less than 30 meter
D. ranges from 30 meter to more than 30 meter
E. is 30 meter at the most

6. To tell the factual information, the writer uses…….

A. passive voice
B. direct speech
C. reported speech
D. simple past tense
E. simple present tense

Text 3

Gold is a precious metal. Gold is used as ornaments or as money. Gold is found in many places, but in a small supply. It is often found on the surface of the earth. Since gold is a heavy substance, it is sometimes found loose on bottom of rivers. The gold is found together with sand and rocks, and must be separated from them. It is simple to search for this type of gold. It is not usually necessary to drill for gold, but when a layer of gold is located deep below the surface of the earth, it is possible to drill a hole into the ground. Engineers have developed modern process for removing gold from rocks. Since gold is not very hard, it is sometimes melted and added to other substances for making rings, coins, and art objects. It will be priced forever because it is beautiful, rare, and useful.

7. The best title of the text above is …..

A. Gold
B. Type of Gold
C. Previous Metal
D. Rare Ornaments
E. Removing Gold from Rocks

8. The following are associated with gold, except …..

A. useful
B. precious
C. beautiful
D. expensive
E. unnecessary

9. The text above is mainly intended to …. about gold.

A. discuss
B. classify
C. describe
D. elaborate
E. document

10. “It will be priced forever because….” (Paragraph 4). The word “priced” means ……

A. valuable
B. worthless
C. interesting
D. wonderful
E. eye catching
   
II. Essay Test

Read the text and answer the questions!

                                                                           Tornado

The word tornado comes from Spanish language and means to twist or turn. A tornado is a whirlwind produced by atmospheric conditions, mainly extremely low pressure, during a severe thunderstorm.

Tornadoes usually turn counterclockwise. They appear as funnel shaped columns of violently rotating winds that reach down from a storm and touch the ground. Although a tornado is not always visible to the eye, tornadic conditions can still be picked up on radar, or the tornado may become visible once debris and dirt are pulled into it.

A tornado may also be referred to as a funnel cloud, but this is technically not a correct term. While the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, a funnel cloud is different, not in its make up, but in the fact that it does not touch the ground. Another name that is often used to describe a tornado is twister, due to its violent twisting motion.

The tornado is one of the most unpredictable and destructive forces of nature, often destroying everything in its path. A tornado is usually preceded by severe storms, which may include lightning, high winds, and frequent hail. It can change course without notice, and is usually accompanied by a roaring sound, or as some describe it, the sound of freight train.

1. What does the word tornado mean?
2. What is a tornado?
3. How do tornadoes usually turn?
4. What do tornadoes look like?
5. What are the other names of tornadoes?
6. Why is it technically not correct to refer tornadoes as funnel clouds?
7. Why is a tornado described as a twister?
8. What usually precedes a tornado?
9. What usually accompanies a tornado?
10. What does the word some in the last line refer to?

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